In order to promote inclusion in all spheres of life, governments play an important role in creating public policies and guaranteeing justice, security, peace, leisure to the entire population. In this opinion article, I will discuss some measures that governments should adopt to promote inclusion and access for people with disabilities.
Angola is a country in Central Africa, with about 34 million people where about 68% of the inhabitants live in urban areas, considerable changes due to the war that took place with the end of independence in 1975, were recorded as a great influence in delaying the advancement of the Angolan economy. Thus, it ended up affecting the distribution of public policies, actions created by the government in order to guarantee the population's health, education, leisure, security as the purpose of guaranteeing the population's quality of life and well-being.
The restructuring of the war period led the government to implement public policies in general terms, which could only be implemented through true data obtained through the population census, the most recent of which was in 2014, where it was found that people with disabilities were around 2.5%, where around 44% were female and 56% were male. The struggle for social inclusion has made great advances due to the social groups that have done a lot for the inclusion of the whole society in general.
According to the Angolan Constitution of 2010, it reinforces that the State is based not only on the principles linked to a democratic State and its rights, but also on respect for the dignity of the human person and with regard to the will of the population, with the main objective being the construction of a just, democratic, solidary, free, equal and socially progressing society (CRA/2010).
On August 30, 2023, the text of the Magna Carta turns 12 years old, there is still a lot of inequality in Angolan society and many groups are unfortunately discriminated against, including people with disabilities. In order to minimize discrimination problems, public policies are created in order to address the problems facing society, since they are public decisions (Saravia, 2006, page 4).
The issue of inclusion becomes part of the constitution from the moment the terms of equality are used, as well as freedom, in accordance with Article 23 (Principle of Equality):
- All are equal before the Constitution and the law.
- No one may be harmed, privileged, deprived of any right or exempt from any duty due to their ancestry, gender, race, ethnicity, color, disability, language, place of birth, religion, political, ideological or philosophical beliefs, level of education, economic or social condition or profession (CRA, 2022, page 28)
It is possible to understand that according to the constitution of the Angolan Republic there are rules in general that establish different treatment for people with disabilities, as well as there are ordinary laws that govern public and even social life, all for the promotion of equality and dignity of people with disabilities. Since if there is no compensation for people with disabilities, it will not be possible to analyze aspects such as the result of public policies in accordance with the 2010 presidential decree in its article 19.
- ratify international conventions on the problem of people with disabilities;
- criminalization of all discriminatory practices against people with disabilities;
- elaboration of laws and regulations, as well as other legal instruments that aim to protect the rights of people with disabilities;
- inspection of compliance with the rules on people with disabilities approved by the competent bodies (CRA, 2022, page 28).
Among the main causes of people with disabilities in the country resulting from the war period, the government has been creating programs that, despite allowing access to the labor market, regrets the lack of supervision of the performance of these government policies in order to expand the inclusion of people with disabilities.
It is estimated that in the period between 2020 and 2021, the Labor and Employment market registered around 960 people with disabilities who applied for employment, according to the National Institute of Employment and Professional Training of Angola
Since Law n." 7/04, of October 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of Angola, presents proposals especially in terms of job vacancies as mentioned:
- Integration of young people with disabilities in projects aimed at facilitating young people's access to land, subsidized credit and facilitating the formation of small and medium-sized companies;
- Ensuring the reservation of vacancies for people with disabilities in public competitions for admission and admission, in public and private institutions. (CRA, 2022, page 29)
Among public policies, we can highlight implementation proposals in order to allow not only access but also promotion in various areas of society, such as:
- Equal access to opportunities
The Angolan government is expected to offer citizens equal access to employment, health, housing, culture and leisure opportunities. This requires the implementation of policies that eliminate systemic barriers and discrimination, promoting equal access and combating social exclusion.
Combating discrimination and prejudice
Through measures to combat discrimination and prejudice in all forms, it is expected that the Angolan government will prioritize policies that may include race, gender, sexual orientation, religion and disability. This can be done through the creation of laws aimed at banning any type of discrimination inside and outside the workplace, awareness campaigns and promotion of diversity and inclusion at all levels of society.
Participation and representation
The Angolan government is expected to include within policies the active participation and representation of marginalized groups in political decision-making and public policy formulation. This can be achieved through the implementation of quotas, incentives and programs that increase the voice and participation of all citizens, especially people with disabilities.Conclusão
Social inclusion is not a luxury, but a necessity for building just and sustainable societies. Governments have a responsibility to take effective measures to create inclusive policies that guarantee equal opportunities and eliminate barriers.
And only through continuous commitment and the implementation of inclusive policies can we build a society where all individuals are valued and have the chance to reach their full potential, and analysis and follow-up are also required in order to have a society that is always guided by equality, peace, freedom, democracy.
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RESULTADOS DEFINITIVOS RECENSEAMENTO GERAL DA POPULAÇÃO E HABITAÇÃO – 2014. Luanda, Angola: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2016. Available at: http://www.info-angola.ao/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4654: resultados-definitivos-do-censo-2014&catid=736&Itemid=1816 Accessed on: 11 jun. 2017.
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